Once cancer have grown and spread, it is very hard to treat or cure. Early detection can improve your chances to be treated and lower the risk of death due to the cancer.
Breast Cancer :
Breast exam: Dr.Kim will exam your breasts to locate any abnormalities of shape and texture of the breasts. He will also look for lumps or masses and whether those lumps or masses are attached to the skin or to deeper tissues. Also, the area under both arms will be examined.
Mammogram: Mammogram is the exam using low-energy X-rays beams to examine the breasts and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool for breast cancer. It is ideal to get a mammogram once a year from the age of 40. Dr.Kim will refer you to nearest diagnostic imaging center.
In general, women 40 years of age and older should have a mammogram every 2-3 years. Women with high risk factors, such as a family history of breast cancer, may need to get a mammogram at younger age and more frequently.
The Pap Smear: A pap smear checks for changes in the cervix. A sample of cells is taken from a woman's cervix or vagina. The test is used to look for changes in the cells of the cervix and vagina that show signs of cancer or conditions that may develop into cancer. Most women with cervical cancer are 50 years of age or younger. But older women can also get cervical cancer. Pap test should be part of the routine check up from 21-65 years of age.
Colon and Rectal Cancer:
Colonoscopy: Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowl and the distal part of the small bowel with a camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis of ulceration and polyps and the doctor can biopsy or remove the suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Routine colonoscopy is recommended after 50 years age every 3-5 years depending on patient’s result and personal/family history of colon cancer.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is the endoscopic procedure to examine of esophagus, stomach and duodenum. It is done with a small camera (flexible endoscope) that is inserted down the throat. It makes accurate diagnosis and can biopsy on suspicious areas.
Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:
Blood tests: AFT (Alpha- fetoprotein ) may reveal liver function abnormalities.
Imaging tests: Liver ultra sound allows doctor to see the tumor of the Liver
Biopsy: During a liver biopsy, a sample of tissue is removed from your liver and examined under a microscope. Your doctor may insert a thin needle through your skin and into your liver to obtain a tissue sample.
It is not simple to diagnose lung cancer. However, there are several tests to diagnose lung cancer.
Chest x-ray: X rays are electromagnetic waves. They use ionizing radiation to create pictures of the inside of your body. A chest x ray takes pictures of the inside of your chest. The different tissues in your chest absorb different amounts of radiation and will show up differently.
CT Scan : These cross-sections, or slices, can produce more dimensions than simple X-ray view.
Sputum Cytology: A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungus that are infecting the lungs or breathing passages. It can also detect any malignant, or cancer-related, cells. Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs.
There are three initial tests to diagnose prostate cancer
Blood tests :
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test : Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood.
Imaging test : Prostate ultra sound test uses very high frequency sound waves to diagnose abnormal growth of the prostate and also used during biopsy to guide the physician to the exact location .
Biopsy : A sample tissue is removed from the prostate gland and examined for presence of cancer.
Imaging test : A thyroid ultrasound is an imaging method used to see the thyroid -- a gland in the neck that produces and regulates thyroid hormone
Biopsy: Fine-needle biopsy. A thin needle go through the skin and into the thyroid gland. Many thyroid specialists like to use a needle biopsy method to obtain the sample rather than using a minor surgery.